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Episode 1754

1937 Brazilian coup d'├ętat
Tue, 2022-Feb-22 00:11 UTC
Length - 3:56

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Welcome to featured Wiki of the Day where we read the summary of the featured Wikipedia article every day.

The featured article for Tuesday, 22 February 2022 is 1937 Brazilian coup d'état.

The 1937 Brazilian coup d'état (Portuguese: Golpe de Estado no Brasil em 1937), also known as the Estado Novo coup (Portuguese: Golpe do Estado Novo), was a military coup led by President Getúlio Vargas with the support of the Brazilian Armed Forces on 10 November 1937. Vargas had risen to power in 1930 with the backing of the military, following a revolution that ended a decades-old oligarchy. He ruled as provisional president until elections were held for a National Constituent Assembly in 1934. Under a new constitution, Vargas became the constitutional president of Brazil, but following a 1935 communist uprising, speculation grew over a potential self-coup. Candidates for the 1938 Brazilian presidential elections appeared as early as late 1936. Vargas could not seek re-election, but he and his allies were unwilling to abandon power. Political repression, which had increased after the communist revolt, was being loosened. However, a strong sentiment for a dictatorial government amongst the military, as well as further federal intervention in state governments, paved the way for a coup to take place.

With preparations beginning officially on 18 September 1937, senior military officers used the Cohen Plan, a fraudulent document, to provoke the National Congress of Brazil into declaring a state of war. After having his state's militia incorporated into federal forces by a state of war commission in his state, Rio Grande do Sul Governor Flores da Cunha, who was opposed to Vargas, went into exile in mid-October 1937. State governors of Bahia and Pernambuco were also attacked by commissions in their states. Francisco Campos was drafting a new, ambitious constitution for Vargas to become a dictator. By November, the president held most of the power in the country, and there was little to stop the intricate plan. On the morning of 10 November 1937, the military surrounded the National Congress. The cabinet expressed approval for the new corporatist constitution, and a radio address by Vargas proclaimed the new regime, the Estado Novo (New State).

In the coup's aftermath, a semi-fascist, authoritarian state was installed in Brazil for the next eight years, based on European fascist countries. Individual liberties and rights were stripped away, Vargas's term of office was prolonged by six years, which turned to eight, and the power of the states was gone. A plebiscite for the new constitution was never held, though promised. Vargas, who ruled as dictator, was ousted from power in 1945 through another coup d'état which reestablished democracy. Foreign reactions to the 1937 coup were mostly negative. South American countries were hostile to it. Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy supported the coup, but in the United States and the United Kingdom, the overall reaction was unfavorable.

This recording reflects the Wikipedia text as of 00:11 UTC on Tuesday, 22 February 2022.

For the full current version of the article, see 1937 Brazilian coup d'├ętat on Wikipedia.

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